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Show all 10 episodes. Show all 7 episodes. In manner he is beyond ail others gentle and urbane. Despite his modest mien one somehow feels an underlying selfconfidence, if not outright pride. He is not one to multiply words, which are to him no counters but coin, and that golden. He gives you the sense of vast resources in reserve. In no mood this evening for much talk, he answered with sharp concision and simple clarity every question, whereupon that powerful jaw would close like a trap.

A little later 1 saw him chatting easily and graciously with a lady of the Portinari, but even then 1 fancied that his thoughts were far away. No wonder if cares of state weigh heavily upon such a man at a moment when Florence, like a ship in a storm with no strong hand at the helm, is like to be crusht between such clashing rocks as threatened the Argonauts. From Chapter III p. Lack of space robs the reviewers of the pleasure to quote much fascinating information contained in these studies, destined to serve as indispensable reference for ail students and scholars.

Character appearing in Chapters 1 and II see pp. And now, digressing a bit from our premise, the question arises as to the difficulty of diffusing this de luxe edition. Though a work of art in printing and binding, this edition will, because of its price, exclude many a iover of Dante from owning a set, and, more regrettable still, fail to reach university or municipal libraries. Even this review could not have been made were it not for the kindness of Mr. English Walling, who placed the volumes at our disposai for consultation.

In view of the fact, then, that this special edition will serve only as a monumental marker, and that the first version published by the World Book Co. John Henry Nash, in his announcement prior to the publication:. Anderson started this translation twenty-eight years ago. He chose as his poetical medium, terza rima or triple rime, the nearest English equivalent to the Dantean verse form. Many other attempts have been made to translate Dante in English terza rima; most of them were unfortunate, and hitherto none could be called a true success. That Dr. Anderson has achieved greatly where others failed may be stated on the authority of Paget Toynbee, the late commendatore, Guido Biagi, and other Danteans of high rank.

Toynbee, in particular, has watched Dr. Anderson's undertaking with sympathy and has encouraged it with praise. In that year Aurelia Henry Reinhardt, President of Mills College, suggested to me that I should devote myself to a monumental publication for the honor of California. About the same time Dr. Reinhardt introduced me to Dr. Anderson, and 1 learned of the great work to which Dr. Anderson was devoting the ripest years of his life. Having obtained Dr.

In 1 went to Europe to consult with the Van Gelders of Amsterdam and this famous old house began the fabrication of a special watermarked paper. The text meanwhile was being composed two pages at a time as proofs were revised and re-revised by Dr. Last year made a second trip to Europe, and arranged to have the books hand-bound in classic vellum tooled in simple gold lines by Hubel and Denck of Leipzig.

The sheets of all four volumes are now in the hands of these great bookbinders. Anderson's Dante is presented in four volumes. One volume apiece is given the Inferno, the Purgatorio, and the Paradiso. The books are of folio size, and contain no ornament except type and rule, from cover to cover.

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The book, too, should be decent and elegant; and to this will contribute the choice of the paper, the excellence of the type, which should have been but little used, and the width of the margins. And if this decency and elegance shall increase your expenses, 1 will refund you entirely. Lastly, 1 should wish that nothing be added to the original or taken from it. It bas been an experience rich in intellectual reward. The intimate association with Dr. Anderson that the work involved has been a dchghtfut privilege-a privilege of a sort that 1 have come to value more and more as the years follow one another, deepening the appreciation of mental gifts.

In conclusion let us repeat a recent judgment on Professor Anderson's translation in that it was destined to preclude the probability of another ever being attempted. It is our privilege, too, to say that Professor Grandgent's opinion is that it combines accuracy with real beauty. Aithur Rimbaud, Correspondance.

These studies on Arthur Rimbaud fall into two distinctly unlike groups. The last two are the most original contribution to an understanding of his incredible genius. Truly Rimbaud flashed through the literary skies like a veritable meteor, consuming and tuming into bitter ashes everything terrestial and human he encountered on his brief pilgrimage. He vent the fire of his irrepressible ire on everything art and life had held holy up to then. No altar was sacred enough for his anathemas. In words of a radiant and burning resonance, he threw down the gauntlet to gods and men.

Fiading the civilization of the West too apathetic for his tumultuous adolescence, and in apparent spiritual stagnancy, his volcanic genius lifted high its flame as if to set divine fire to aIl that was, to whatever seemed to his hallucinated vision old, desrepit, and dying; to whatever was worn out by physical, social, and moral disease. The verses from his youthful mouth must have sounded to an Izambard, to a Verlaine, like the angry, and yet divinely captivating admonitions of a young and virile prophet. This child felt that he was rising from the dust, from the depth of soulless tradition, fear, social stratification, and nerveless religion, to lead man back to his pnstine glory as thefils du Soleil.

And it was because he felt he had failed, because hif hysterical genius wavered in the end before the stupendous indifference, or stupidity, of mankind that he made the great sacrifice, and destroyed the secret of that magic alchemy from which he had extracted so many miraculous verses.

Coulon and Ruchon are the more comprehensive and the more judiciously planned interpretations of the life and work of the poet; but that by M. They are proof of what scientific criticism can achieve when it is served by the intelligence and the intuitions. Coulon says:. While he is still a student in rhetoric, under the indulgent but over-cautious guidance of his teacher Izambard, he spreads his wings laden with spiritual dynamite. In the Spring of , he lifts his vision above the black turmoil of those somber months, and to the then regnant political and social upheaval, he opposes the individual, but more terrible frenzy of the anarchy he sets adrift in his mind.

He writes to Th. But his dazzling genius leaves us already aghast with its wondrous daring. He is already a fallen angel with the piercing darts of a Satan on his tongue, with an irremediable knowledge of good and evil in his heart, and an unquenchable desire to rise above both. Rimbaud's poetry, M. Coulon shows, is the most autobiographical of any poet's, not excluding Villon's.

Not one of his verses but speaks a phase of his melodramatic adolescence in terms of a spiritual transmutation.


Not a mood of his oppressed childhood but finds an echo in his haunting words. The poetic import of his poems is thus enhanced by the critic who shows their ail too-human sources. Ruchon's exegesis, on the other hand, is rather impersonal, and somewhat frigid. This is a dangerous method in dealing with a temperament like Rimbaud's.

Reality in the brief years of his poetic consciousness, by eluding constantly his physical grasp, compelled him to withdraw within the fantastic reality of his inner being. Therein ail his earthly, sodden acts and feelings were metamorphosed into unearthly music, of which only the echo resounds in his verses. The critic who will not enter into that world with utter sympathy had better leave out ail hope of ever hearing that music.

Rimbaud's spiritual anarchism knew no literary or social frontiers. His scorn for the literature of his contemporaries and ancestors was boundless. Racine, peuh! Victor Hugo pouah! In the matter of mere artistic form, however, so far as his Premiers Vers are concerned, Rimbaud owes much to Hugo, Banville, Gautier. But it is to Baudelaire and Verlaine he owes most, especially the musicality of such poems as Les Chercheuses de Poux and Voyelles.

His search for a musical ultimate ended in a dilemma, especially in the last poem. He turned then to prose. Ruchon's analysis of them is most valuable precisely in this connection. His is not a mystic interpretation of Rimbaud. He studies the poet's technique in so far as it is possible with erudition Rnd insight. For the first time he gives us general survey of Rimbaud's versification that reveals something of the inner mechanism of that "Alchimie du Verbe" which lias remained an invulnerable secret with the poet.

Ruchon insists that Rimbaud was not a vates, a frenzied spirit writing under the spell of his unconscious self, as the surrealists claim. On the contrary, his aesthetics, he tells us, rest on a system that was willed, conscious, artificial. And yet it is when most apparently so that his hallucinations become most mystifying. Casting his emotions, his passions, his deliriums into the crater of his willful genius, he invites misunderstanding, scorn, hatred, even death, morally, to reach the infinite core of life unshackled, naked to the depth of his soul, and more intact than a deity before the act of creation.

The tread is not broken between dream and reality. The poet's thirst for ultimate freedom, for the unknown, for the absolute finds in it its intensest expression. When he reaches Illuminations he has broken ail his moorings. The "Voyant" gives us glimpses of the unearthly visions he sees in his itinerary. His "Alchimie du Verbe" sparkles with new and strangely phosphorescent glimmers. He steals from chaos, or the absolute harmony of things, some hard, dazzling gems of light.

But they blind our earthly vision rather than illumine it. So his failure, and there is failure, lies in his inability to discover a language that transcends the power of ilence, of the silence that must fall upon anyone who beholds the central mystery of life. There was nothing else for the disillusioned sky adventurer to do than to flee, not only from life, but also from himself:.

But as if ultimately conscious of the hopelessness of his revoit, his nihilism, the poet adds as an after-thought at the end of the poem: Ce n'est rien, j'y suis, j'y suis toujours. But that is only a matter of degree. This again is what renders his religious affiliations so speculative a matter, and as elusive as gossamer threads. Brought up in the strictest Catholic atmosphere, he turned out to be if not most anti-Christian, certainly a very Antichrist. His antagonism to the Church was both social and sesthetic.

He rejected it as an instrument of oppression of the poor, and of oppression of the flesh. AU four critics here reviewed are unanimous in their estimate of Rimbaud's antiChristian feelings, and find themselves at odds with M. Claudel who sees in Rimbaud one of the most Catholic of nineteenth century poets, and his own spiritual godfather. It is true that as M. Claudel have done it is to put more of one's self in the text than there is in it. One must, of course, bow to the deeper insight and supreme authority of M. Claudel in matters of poetry, especially religiousiy inspired poetry.

But may it not be that much of the Christian mysticism he finds in Rimbaud is only a reflexion of that which shines in his own spirit? At any rate, the anti-Christianity of Rimbaud fairly staggers one who reads him with no Catholic talisman to shield his piety. He seems truly then like a reincarnation of Satan challenging not only human morality and justice, but also Christian goodness and love.

Ruchon's is the more academic and impersonal treatment of it, M. For what, after all, was the secret spark that lit up the genius of Rimbaud for a moment only to become extinguished soon after like a vanishing star? The evidence he bares to attest his thesis is rather inconclusive, and consists of his alleged readings from Oriental books in the library at Charleville. Granting the critic's hypothesis, however, his thesis is most convincingly and startlingly developed.

The various Upanishads teach that man is but a spark sprung from a great universal fire which, is the spirit of God. Without being a god, the individual is part and parcel of it. He has an intriguing art of forcing Rimbaud's verses to say anything he wishes them to say. His effort to collate passages from Rimbaud with excerpts from Oriental religions lends much color to his argument. To Rimbaud's preoccupations with an "Achimie du Verbe," with what is suprasensible, and with the idea of the Absolute, he tags Oriental and Pythagorean epithets. He shows Rimbaud aiming at the Absolute through what is sensible even at the risk of, and perhaps only at the cost of destroying the physical universe as our senses know and feel it.

Asceticism, he declares, is one of the avenues to travel to reach the central blessedness of Nirvana, and, following M. Berrichon's Romantic coloring of his brother-in-law's sufferings in Paris, M. He was not craving it when he wrote. SoM CAaM'. Many passages in Rimbaud, however,! Nothing is further, of course, than this from the Christian concept which regards good and evil as irreconcilably divided. Rimbaud's aim, we are told, was to escape this duality, and attain to the Absolute unity of divine Love. But to reach it is by the same token to give up ail effort at earthly action and expression.

The wonder adventure ends thus in a blind alley, for the artist, for to express it is to lose it, at the same time. In his highest flight the poet was doomed to silence in a world of expression. One does not have to make of Rimbaud a disciple of cabalism or of Mrs. Annie Besant to get at the inner radiance of his poetry. Incidentally, the letters of Rimbaud are also edited, or simply introduced, by an ardent surrealist who, as he declares in a footnote, considers the book of M.

They include ail those he wrote between with which literature is concerned. Towards such an elucidation MM.

He suggests a solution to life's muddle, but it is a solution that invites its own destruction. He would annihilate ail so-called civilization and substitute for it the rarefied vision of a mystic, and especially of an Oriental mystic. Brought up in a petty, morally stifling atmosphere, he erected upon a scaffolding of reality that is topsy-turvy an edifice of surreality breath-taking in its iramateriality. His poetic span extends over four years of his adolescence, at the end of whieh, in full meteoric blaze, he fell to earth, to bury his burnt genius in the clay of the earth.

He feels the itching desire to tear asunder the veil that shrouds the secrets of life. Then his vision clears-he sees it all with the eyes of a rationalist. Nothing brings out more completely this complexity of his nature than the two groups of studies we have been reviewing, one of which is a rational exposition of his life and art by two clear-thinking scholars, and the other a mystic interpretation of it by two avowed theosophists.

Both sides can say with equal sincerity and reason: "Behold the true Rimbaud. La philosophie du sentiment prend la place de la philosophie de la raison. Quelques passages du livre de M. I, ch. III, ch. Tout en admirant la puissance de travail et les dons intellectuels de M. En fait, c'est un moderne. An unsympathetic critic has said that this vigorous and dynamic Basque's personality has so overshadowed his work that few have taken the trouble to read him. Even Baroja moves forward, if only in the company of his heroes, who are grown mellow, more sentimental and more rheumatic. Unamuno, however, remains the same, even in his latest work, perhaps just because of the dominance of his personality and because he has in a measure anticipated the younger writers.

Romera-Navarro, in the present book, is the first to undertake anything like a complete survey of Unamuno. The order in which he takes up Unamuno's writings, indicated in the title of his study, has no special significance. For him, as for most people, Unamuno is first and foremost an essayist p. And as he finds more to censure in the poetry than in the novels of Unamuno, it may be supposed that he would consider the novels as more important, which is again the usual opinion. If Sr. Romera's discussion of Unamuno the novelist can be criticized at ail, it is not for what he says but for what he leaves unsaid or fails to emphasize.

Romera is of course aware of this, but he dismisses the fact in a sentence p. Yet it must figure prominently in any estimate of Unamuno's novels and is in fact, if its implications are considered, the only proper basis for such an estimate. Il faudrait lire, cependant, elle, p.

III, 1. U7, I. The fact that Unamuno has more than once thought it necessary to defend his method-in Niebla, in the prologue of Tres novelas ejemplares and in that of the second edition of Paz en la guerra-would seem to call for some consideration of that method. One is tempted, moreover, in view of the recent tendency in Spain toward greater intellectualization of the novel, to examine into the possibility of Unamuno's influence.

Full justice has not yet been done Unamuno as an innovator. He has sometimes been compared to Pirandello in his attitude toward his characters, and it has been pointed out that without knowing Sei personaggi in cerca d'autore, he conceived the amusing and original situation of having the hero in Niebla rebel against the author. What I have not seen stated yet is that Unamuno, as far back as and , in his first two novels, attempted, though apparently without realizing its possibilities, the 'stream of consciousness' method that has since become, with the advent of psychoanalysis, of such great importance in the modern novel.

When he comes to study Unamuno the poet, Professor Romera finds much to criticize in him on the side of form. A close scrutiny of Unamuno's best volume of poetry, the Rosario. In some instances one may feel that Sr. Romera's criticism is uncalled for, that there is no need, for example, to find fault with "el temple diamantino de tu dano," with the poet's comparison of a flame with the crest of a wave p. But in general the criticism is just and indeed more favorable to Unamuno than might have been expected. For most people, I suppose, the poetry in Unamuno's nature is best revealed in his essays.

Here is the full lyric expression, intense, paradoxical, illogical, of this modern mystic's doubts and affirmations. To these writings Sr. Romera devotes the last half of his book. The Vida de don Quijote y Sancho he shows to be a work of uneven merit. These two works and the remaining essays are then drawn on for a general exposition of Unamuno's fundamental thoughts and preoccupations: his deep concern with the religious problem, his conception of God, his belief in faith and hope, his ideas on intuition and intelligence and consequent distrust of logic, his passion for will and action.

Romera establishes many points of contact here between Unamuno and a number of modern philosophers, beginning with Spinoza, many of whom have offered pabulum to his insatiable curiosity. The most serious criticism to be made of Sr. Romera's book concerns omissions. The only error of fact that 1 have noticed is the statement, preceding Sr. As a matter of fact Browning is mentioned numerous times in Del sentimiento tragico de la vida as well as in other writings of Unamuno.

But Sr. Unamuno himself has not failed to. These omissions do not seriously detract, however, from the value of Sr. Romera's study, which remains a useful guide to the understanding of one of the most complex and compelling figures in modern Spanish letters. Knopf, , pp. Fite, the public will become acquainted with one of his most purely imaginative works-a tragic-comic novel or nivola as the author carefully characterizes it. By writing in this new form, Unamuno permits himsetf the widest liberties, violating the established notions of unity and action customarily observed in the novel.

It might be any town in Spain. The action is, as it were, rigorously simplified and spiritualized. Since his nivola is a conflict between souls which is fought within in the kingdom of the spirit, considerations of time and space become irrelevant and are reduced to a minimum.

It is a record of what happens to a character without regard to sequence or importance. His characters, incarnations of himself, are intensely human. Their delineation is reduced to the utmost simplicity. In Mist, as in his other works, Unamuno takes the public by the hand, looks into their eyes and tells them what is in his heart and soul in a lively, virile, exclamatory, perhaps disjointed manner, which is always striking. The nivola is an extremely clever, satirical work-a brilliant commentary on humanity written by a philosopher and an artist.

Augusto, who takes himself seriously, decides that life is but a vast mist of trifling incidents. Out of this mist emerges the beautiful Eugenia who makes him conscious of himself-that he is a man. Augusto is at last awakened and asserts himself by repeating to his little dog, Orfeo: have a character of my own.

Since Eugenia is in love with another, Augusto vainly strives to have his laundry maid mi her place. He is in despair and is on the verge of suicide. He pauses, however, long enough to make a journey to Salamanca to ask Unamuno for advice. In this most witty and amusing chapter, his creator informs him that he has no independent existence, being but a figure in a tale that is told, and that he cannot commit suicide because he does not exist!

Don Miguel explains that authors, like God, kitt their creatures when they can no longer think of anything for them to do. Then Augusto threatens to kiU Unamuno. In self protection, the author must k! Augusto returns home and involuntarily succeeds in eating himself to death. Unamuno, the supreme individualist, the living soul of that Spain he loves so well, never wearies of affirming in ail his works that man is an end in himself, not a means. I feel that I, like each one of my fellows, am here to realize myself, to live. Unamuno believes society exists for man, not man for society, Referring to Unamuno on this point, Madariaga says:.

He is neither subtilized into an idea by pure thinking nor civilized into a gentleman by social laws and prejudices. Spanish art and letters deal with concrete, tangible persons. There is no more concrete, tangible person than yourself. We can only know and feel humanity in the one human being which we have at hand. It is by penetrating into ourselves that we find our brothers in us. This searching within, Unamuno has undertaken with a sincerity and fearlessness which cannot be excelled.

Throughout Unamuno's works one feels his desire to be a whole man with ail his affirmations and negations and a passion for the indefinable persistence of his being. This passion is a source of sympathy for ail humanity. The philosopher seeks God through the individual soul, and the salvation of man, not from sin but from death, from annihilation. Immortality is at the very core of his thoughts and emotions.

The thought of Unamuno seems to fall into no definite philosophical system. The readers can only know him by knowing his loves, hopes, and despairs reflected in the writings which are part of him-the-man. Constantly Unamuno asserts that the author develops himself while creating his work, whith in its turn perfects itself in perfecting the author.

Don Miguel de Unamuno, the philosopher of paradoxes, of contradictions and strife-an awakener of the soul-is worth reading. Baron E. No one will be tempted to call these opinions either new or startling. The dogma of modern decadence is a time-wom antique in the store-house of critical s. It is cbvious that his esthetic tenets remain in conflict with his esthetic principles. He objected to M. And, similarly, the objections raised against Romanticism, are neither historie nor esthetic, but "moral. His anti-Romantic doctrine bas, therefore, the merit of being neither complex nor novel.

This will be obvious as soon as we divest it from its somewhat sonorous terminology:. A Each individual and each social group is largely led by ImperiaUsm. He uses. B With this "desire for power" is frequently allied, he stresses, a certain. MM a meaning of his own. It has with him no special religious connotation, it does not designate ecstasy or union with the divine; it is not a direct and supra-sensual road to knowledge by internai illumination. To him. When M. Every individual and every group tends unavoidably toward expansion and domination, and wants to justify this impulse by claiming that "God willed it," that its actions are the consequence of a well-established truth or principle, or that they are in harmony with "the laws of nature," etc.

They are, in a sense, machines of war and conquest. This universal scepticism would, of course, rob all doctrines including M. His own antiRomanticism would be, according to his own premises, a "machine de guerre," an exercise of his Will to Power, which claims justification through the invocation of a principle and an alliance with a divine being. He found this principle in Reason which means to him Tradition and his divine Ally in the God of ail good Frenchmen a kind of a "Dieu des bonnes gens," or rather a "Dieu de la bonne classe sociale.

He did not want at all to give free rein to the "critical intellect" like Voltaire; and he certainly did not desire to conceive it, like the rationalists, as a supreme and law-giving principle, opposed to faith. On the contrary, his Reason had to be identified with Faith. And, therefore, M. And when M. It is rather remarkable that this anti-Romanticist professes a doctrine as antiintellectualist as any form of Romanticism. Any rationalist would, of course, classify these principles as a form of the "abdication of the intellect.

Romanticism, he says, unloosens all lusts, including the libido dominandi. Now it happens-strangely enough! It betrays a most t,nbridled lust for power and conquest, not only in the person of the Roi-soleil, but ia the whole texture of the period. This respect for the tradition "-which tradition? Villon or Rabeiais are "tradition" too. This conception of literary history seems to me too much like Bossuet's "finger of God" visible in history. Sprietsma has, therefore, rendered a real service in providing us with an excellent translation of this very significant treatise on.

This dolorous clown of the Infinite with his tearful smile, who, in the face of approaching early death, juggled with his heart and brain in an ironically unique performance,—eold despair before the "eter-nullity" of things and gods, and lives and suns and worlds,-has been discovered Atas!

Poor Yorick! After forty-two years! When an American woman enjoys the advantage of a week in Florence, she always comes home with a gold-tooled portfolio jEtled with carefully coloured prints of the gold and aquamarine painters of the earliest Renaissance. And no American woman who enjoyed the advantage of. And she assures us that Laforgue is dernier cri, that she takes pride in her precedence of "presenting Jules Laforgue.

One cannot suspect her of having sounded the depth or felt the impact of Laforgue's cosmic jests,-of his insoluble conflict between an irrepressible Will-toLive and an acute awareness of the nothingness of personal existence, of the aimlessness of all thought, art and action, of ultimate annihilation. She has, 1 am sure, not understood how, in another layer of his being, this nihilist was a "Knight of the Absolute," or again in another layer, the "Grand-Chancellor of Analysis," forever bent over his fluctuating feelings, to destroy them by corrosive self-criticism. He could adore-mockingly-the life-instincts or the intellect, and he could mockadoringly-at the life-instincts or the intellect.

From all these conflicts,-this constant struggle with the Daimons in his brain,-was born his tragic irony which, for being clownish enough on the surface, is nevertheless tragedy too poignant for pathos. The very uncritical Introduction also attempts, of course, a Freudian explanation of Laforgue,—who escapes that to-day? The Freudian misinterpretations of literature,-especially by popular critics who have reduced Freud to a few lewd banalities,are confusing enough. If, in addition to ail the "Freudian twaddle," critics are going to jumble up the Unconscious, the Subconscious,.

But, perhaps, one is not expected to understand? One of the strangest suggestions made in this Introduction is the identification of Laforgue's Hamlet with—of all men and of ail potentates-with William II, the former Emperor of Germany! Was Hamlet mad? No, but he would have turned mad by now, had he read ail that critics wrote about him. His I. Mot to seem partial, I select my examples only from the first three pages of. Laforgue describes, thus, the stagnant water:. This "translation," filled with weak verbiage of which there is no trace in Laforgue's t'sxt, is more than twice as long as the original.

Laforgue speaks of "les petites gens vivant de cancans de clochers," which. I refrain from quoting more. The whole "translation" is done with the same skill. Every one of the pp. Vanier, Did the translator find them too difficult? It was indeed an act of daring to attempt to translate Jules Laforgue's very idiomatic and very artistic prose without linguistic preparation,-and an act of daring of the publishers to bring out such a "translation" without competent supervision.

And as to Laforgue's fame in America "Alas! This volume is chiefly remarkable as another sign of the strange spell Stendhal still exerts upon the recent generation of self-analytical novelists. From his "clandestine celebrity,to which M. But to the recent generation he appears again in another light: He is to them less a philosophie leader than a bitter and precise, a cool and yet vibrating analyst of Consciousness and all its infinite fluctuations.

And, indeed, it is possible to view Stendhal from several sides. He is multiple and complex to the point of escaping classification and pigeon-holing. Bourget saw in him one of the sponsors of "nineteenth century pessimism,and yet he exalted the vigorous and unscrupulous Italians of the Renaissance.

No wonder, then, that others consider him as a Romantique pur sang, afflicted with Romantic amoralism and irony,-and yet he held that to be a perspicacious philosopher and an analytic novelist one should be as "dry" as Immanuel Kant or as a practising prohibitionist, and without consoling illusions. Without illusions? But who ever harbored as many illusions about himself as that fat "notary," Beyle-Stendhal,-defeated in life and love, but in his dreams a triumphator who rode magnificently through a festive existence and was secretly one with the heroes he admired?

From on each generation seems to find itself mirrored in his complex work,. Zola claimed him as an ancestor of his Naturalism and Bourget as a precursor of the psychological novel. And in each generation there are those who have seen Italy "with the eyes of Stendhal. Jacques de Lacretelle is one of them. In the present volume the first part, Il 2VM. In the preface the author states that at last he bas succeeded in writing a "boring book," and were it not for his bizarre style and suppleness of thought via sophistication and paradox we should agree with him that it is certainly, in part, "un libro noioso," his auto-accusation.

In three hundred odd pages the author give, numerous observations to prove his premises. We venture to say, however, that in. Evreinov who is chiefly convinced and the reader merely grateful for the many interesting observations. We note with relief that the Italian edition of this work has excluded the lengthy chapter "In the Commission of Experts" Theatre in Life, New York, contained in the English edition.

It is a chapter with far-fetched discussions and strained repartee in which Mr. The Italian edition is to be commended for excluding such and other poorly chosen material found in the English text. Alessandro Varaldo, Il cavaliere errante, Milan, Mondadori, , pp. Italy of the tenth century is the background to this tale of chivalry.

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The author has been successful in imparting to this story a melancholy tone of a distant epoch when a cavalier's profession was war and wandering. Reproduced before us is that haunting horizon of dark towers and churches, of violent warriors and saintly men. The novel has an undertone of historicity depicting the Italy of that period when, in addition to internat discord, she struggled against foreign dominion.

Fraccaroli's literary star is on the wane of late not in quantity of production but in quality. His recent books such as America, A Girl's Paradise, and Hollywood are impossible from the point of view of his observations on America, which, if not distorted, are either superficial or iU-chosen. To his last half dozen books of slight literary value he has added recently this play, Peccato biondo, which would be no departure from the rest were it not for its chatty dialogue and cursory plot. The play, among other things, contains a thin stiee of sentimentatity. This "blond sin" turns out to be a sentimental wife who leaves her husband to teach him a moral lesson, in consequence of which he falls in love with her all over again.

The play, with its urban intrigue, because of its caricature and burlesque character, falls somewhat under the'series of "grotesques" of which Chiarelli is the chief exponent. In this book the romance of the South Sea islands is finally coming to its end. Since Melville and Loti and Gauguin's Noa-Noa, so many White Shadows have flitted along these golden beaches, encircled by deep blue seas, in quest of a perfumed paradise of primitive happiness!

But they saw these islands and these strangely beautiful women, only with the eyes of their desire; and-since they were artists,-they wove around them the legend of their unspoiled spontaneity, of their goddess-like abandon to the rythms of life. Jean Dorsenne has met Loti's queenly Rarahu, that rarest flower among Tahitian beauties,-now a withered hag puffing away at dried leaves. She has told him her remembrances, among which Loti occupies but a very inconspicuous place.

The sad International Lover never saw reality, never understood Tahitian beautiesor any other. In fact, it is doubtful whether he ever perceived clearly anything, or cared for anybody, except for that singularly feminine and feline comedian of dreams. Practical Rarahu had been warned that the white "popaa" wanted love spiced with mystery, romance, moonlight beaches, primitive dances and primitive fears, superstitions, inexpressible melancholy and passionate jealousy. And, against due payment, she concocted the brand he yearned for.

While getting clothing, a house, presents for her other lovera, she dispensed-with unmistakable talent,-primitive illusions to sensitive whites. For, Jean Dorsenne assures us, the real Tahitian, if natural, is as callous, sensuous, empty, insincere, calculating, greedy, petty, vain and mendacious as any among the civilized ladies of this earth. How much literature, how much Chateaubriand, how much borrowed attitude and natural pose did not go into the transformation of the egoist Loti into the Wandering Jew of ail romantic loves?

Who does care, pourvu que le geste soit beau"? With rather characteristic exaggeration, William Lyon Phelps acclaims here again Edmond Rostand as "the greatest dramatic poet since Goethe. Now, Rostand was "a theatrical craftsman, he was a poet, hewasahumorist,"and,therefore,heltveduptotheGoethianpatternofgenius. The demonstration is neat, quick and conclusive as that of a theorem,-though eminently refutable.

The play was acted in English at the Greenwich Village Theatre during the season. His works were "European" books, and after decades of increasing popularity some of them became class-texts, in use until recent times. The French text was issued. Le Francq van Berkhey. For this reason Dr. In this discussion, Dr.

It was revived in the eighteenth century: In The Dutch pamphlet of goes back, probably, upon one of the French versions of this well-known "jeu d'esprit. Martin's study is well poised and does not lay any claim for direct influences there where only parallel currents of thought entered into a momentary contact or combination. This title of "chef" might be claimed for many of the great French dramatists. Among the symbolists, Claudel, Maeterlinck, Dujardin are well described. Lenormand, a master psychologist and symbolist, analyzes. When, in , Professor G. His work has expanded into a bibliography that will contain over seven hundred titles for the eighteenth cent ary alone.

The critical studies on Alzirette and L'Empirique he has now published, are but two of some nfty odd parodies on Voltaire, few of which have been printed. Professor van Roosbroeck's introductions, developed in his usual erudite and inimitable fashion, are replete with valuable information. Naines and works strike an unfamiliar note, and reveal an unknown field of letters: Carolet, Panard, Fuselier, Pontau, Parmentier, Montigny, and many others fartoo numerous to set forth.

The vast amount of new material to which Professor van Roosbroeck has drawn attention is perhaps too much for one man to develop. Therefore, he has p! As a result monographs on the Parody as a genre, or on Carolet, Favart, Fuselier, or studies on the evolution of the operalibretto, as well as on such librettists as P. Roy, have been announced for publication.

These investigations of a large amount of manuscript material, this reconstruction of the history of a genre that has a bearing upon all the great figures of the eighteenth century, will prove to be of major interest for literary history. Carlton J. Hayes, France, a Nation of Pa. It is the nation which produced a military genius who dreamed of a world empire; it is the nation which bas experimented with almost every conceivable form qf government; finally, it is one of the nations which bore the greatest brunt of the late war and which, surprisingly enough, has almost compteted its period of convalescence.

Today, the eyes of the world are turned on France. Since the war, it has gained more prestige, more influence, and power than ever before. Professor Hayes, a scholar excellently versed in the problems of nationalism and a guide to many who seek a way for international harmony, has delved especially into the national psychology of the French people. He has examined closely the practical operations of those institutions which shape public opinion.

To him, all Frenchmen, no matter what their political inclinations may be, are above all patriotic. But their patriotism is not the sort that plays the raucous tunes of imperialism, jingoism and nationalism "par excellence. In a measure, the lively air of de Lisles' Marseillaise sums up excellently the very essence of Jacobinism.

Yet, in the eyes of every Frenchman-nationalist or internationalist-both these influences have their emotional values. The first chapter contains a brief, brilliant analysis of the French nationality. It may best be summed up in the words of the author: "French nationalism is the product of historical human cultural forces; it rests on tradition of politics, religion, languages, war, invasion, conquest, economics, and society. In the following chapters particular stress is laid on the various agencies of social control in France: the Church, the Press, the School and other related educational institutions are each given a special chapter.

There is much valuable material of importance to layman, student, and specialist. The study of the press reveals facts little known both to the French and the American public. It is of service to those who seek an understanding of French editorial opinion on international affairs. In the last chapter Professor Hayes very emphatically stresses the tendency of the French people to regard their nationalism as an inheritance from the Jacobinistic ideals of and as a rightful step towards, and not away from, internationalism, for to the French, France is the "mother of internationalism.

The appendices contain an excellent digest of the texts in history for the rising generation. Professor Nicolae Iorga publishes the stenographic notes of his Synthetic Introduction to the History of Rumanian Literature, a course of lectures delivered at the University of Bucharest. The resuit is not only a fascinating panorama of Rumanian history, language and letters, but also a very keen criticism of some extraneous influences. For, above ail, it is the soul of the nation which must be revealed in its literature.

Thus, he concedes the fact:. This Rumanian soul is what Professor Iorga seeks in the epochs which he revives. On the other hand, VasHe Alecsandri , who is considered as the nrst to introduce, and knowingly, the popular in his verse, has not Professor lorga's endorsement. Yet all we have from Eminescu are the fragments of a genius hindered from giving the full measure of his immense possibilities. These are but a few instances illustrating the master's attitude and method. The course in itself is a monument of erudition.

Beginning with the creation of the I. It is interesting to note the attitude of the editor of. Speaking of his own literary school, Professor Iorga says that it was: "a general Rumanian current. Ciornei, , 2 vols. This is an historical novel. The action takes place around the year Prince Alecu Ruset is the hero. He is the unfortunate son of the deposed AntonieVoda of Moldavia. He falls in love with Princess Catrina, daughter of Duca-Voda, the shrewd and cruel ruler who hates the scion of his predecessor.

Prince Alecu Ruset follows Princess Catrina from Moldavia to distant Constantinople and returns to meet death at the hands of her father. The meager outline of the plot cannot convey the world of living characters in these powerful pages, the gorgeous descriptions of ancient Moldavia and Stambout. Father Paul de Marenne, a French traveler and guest of both Moldavian and Turkish courts, adds an unusual charm to the society of the epoch. This subtle Westerner and the multitude of natives give, each in turn, color and movement to the narrative.

One cannot resist quoting at least once. Here is a portrait of that legendary and feared Sultan Mohammed:. Sultan Mohammed was then forty years old and had a kind look. Nothing of the cruelty of his ancestors burned in his gaze. He had his mother's blue eyes,-she had been a slave kidnapped in her childhood from Russia and brought to the seraglio by Crimean Tartars. Mihail Sadoveanu's new historical novel reminds one of the best that has been written in the genre.

It is to be regretted that no translation will ever render the packed beauty of his language which transforms the chapters into as many cantos of a winged epopee. Perpessicius Professor Dimitrie Panaitescu's nom de plume is a poet and critic of note. In this volume he gathers his articles which appeared during the last few years in various publications.

Perpessicius has an honest and often kindly attitude towards ail forms of literary expression. His modesty prompts him to state:. He persistently keeps from considering himself a critic, because he does not find any didactic qualities within himself, nor a certain dogmatism, without which, it seems, there can be no critic. Granted their timeliness and immediate scope, many of the items contain, nevertheless, a permanent element: it is the sincerity with which he interprets the traditional as well as the new and the experimental.

It is with real delight that one reads these very attractive and instructive criticisms of this well-versed authority in the field of contemporary Rumanian literature. Histories of Spanish literature have frequently tended to become cataloguesinteresting and valuable, no doubt,-but wrestling in vain with multitudinous fact and forever accumulating detail. Others again have discarded such scientific paraphernalia, and have attempted to replace literary history by some "paginas escogidas "-usually selected with all the taste that their predecessors had decreed for them.

Between the arid cliffs of the specialist on the one hand and the flowery marshland of the dilettante on the other Romera-Navarro here attempts to steer a middle course. No doubt, wamings will be sounded from both the sides he avoided. To the professional, this history may well seem too "peptonized" for easy digestion. The outlines of plots and select passages culled from outstanding authors may well seem a sacrilegious diversion to the seriousness of literary history, and a hindrance to.

On the other hand, the amiable dilettanti may wett feel their enthusiasm cooled by a few dozen scholarly references at the end of the chapters and a lack of superlatives in the text. Yet the plan of Romera-Navarro should not be rejected c priori. Our mental habits run along the lines on which the book was planned. When one keeps in mind the needs of the student, and particu! It combines quite exacting scholarship, attempts to incorporate the accepted results of more recent investigation, and presents opinions quite unbiased.

From a scholarly point of view, and according to one's personal preferences, one could require the author to stress one or another aspect. In suggesting p. Other and earlier versions are known n in aovet form as well as in baUads. One might also regret the unsympathetic attitude towards the more complex and inaccessible masterpieces of Gongora, as well as the repetition of the error that the work of the Cisne is neatly divided into two parts, the simple and the obscure; that the first part is the height of excellence of ail Spanish lyrics; and the second the curse of mad poetasters.

It is ail the more astonishing to find this theory still upheld since one of the very critics who most emphatically ref uted it-Miguel Artigas-is included in the bibliography of the chapter. However, on the whole, Romera-Navarro's guardedness of too personal views is to be commended. Yet, there is one question of principle on which one may disagree without running the risk of stressing one's own prejudices, interests or specialties over much. It is the too coldly reserved attitude towards modern literature, which he shares with other literary historians.

One is inclined to suspect that this timidity is caused either by lack of example from which to glean opinions, or else through an unsympathetic attitude toward newer forms and innovations. Yet it is less easy to understand Romera-Navarro's hesitant attitude since he wrote his doctoral dissertation on Unamuno, and has shown a wide understanding of modern Spanish literature.

Perhaps he allowed himself to be guided too closely by precedent, and feared to enter a field in which his personal views would of necessity have to play a more aggressive role. This volume is a valuable asset for survey classes. There exists no other literary history so practical, and in the main so accurate, and none which is so constructed as. It guides them to the more accessible sources for further study; it presents a picture of Spanish literature that is, at the same time, full and animated, documented and readable.

And that alone is an achievement. From Hugo to Larbaud. Professor Rudmose-Brown studies briefly the metrical tendencies of recent poetry,-but objectively, and without being drawn into the numerous battles which the progressive "renewal of form" of the last half century still stirs up. In general, a stimulating booklet which will render service in the teaching of the modern poetry of France-a knowledge of which is so fundamental for the understanding of modern poetry in general. Joseph W. This book will undoubtedly have the success it deserves.

It offers several novel features which make it a valuable asset in the teaching of grammar and composition. The Spanish, natural and idiomatic from the start, never becomes too difficult to bridge the gap between the native tongue of the student and the language he wants to acquire.

In this respect it improves considerably upon the artificial and hypothetical sentences so frequently piled up only to exemplify grammar rules and exceptions. Each lesson centers around some story or anecdote; some present a lively sketch of intimate domestic life-the patio, the servants, etc. This wide variety of subjects-customs, history and literature-offers, within its small compass, a vista of Spanish culture and civilization. At last an elementary grammar bas dared to deviate from the dogma that its material should be simplistic, not to say infantile.

This book presents reading matter stimulating enough in subject to cater to the intellectual interests of high school and college students, without discouraging them with insuperable linguistic difficulties. But the fact that a good deal of stress is laid on the subject matter doesnot prevent the principles of grammar from being expounded with rare thoroughness.

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The rules are simplified and the student is repeatedly drilled in them-so repeatedly in fact, that under the guidance of a good teacher, the essentials of the language will unavoidably be mastered even by the most recalcitrant. The review lessons do not merely afford a mechanical repetition of these points of grammar-they are built around a new story in which the student reapplies the same principles from a different angle. The suggestive illustrations also form an integral part of the work.

With them before his eyes, the student can develop his aptitude for free composition and thus gauge his own accomplishments in the language. The value of this grammar is further enhanced by the introductory lessons on pronunciation which, from the start,. This volume will especially interest teachers as a grammar which embodies the more recent contributions of pedagogy, and which nevertheless does not abandon the solid foundations laid by the teaching experience of many years.

Its merit consists in the fact that it is novel without breaking away from tradition and without sacrificing to "fads"; that it combines the best features of direct method teaching, with that of literary reading, as well as with solid drill in fundamentals. Ernst and H. Harvitt, D. It is not easy to find a contemporary French novel suitable for use as a text in High School and the first years of College.

Either the subject is improper for any but the advanced class-room, as in the novels of Mauriac and Martin du Gard, or the involved manner of writing makes translation too difficult, as with Giraudoux and Proust. If the book is not ruled out for one of these reasons it Is apt to be as completely undistinguished as the fiction of Henri Bordeaux. There is nothing in the text that could shock the most sensitive. The style is on the whole sober and straightforward, with enough variety of structure and breadth of vocabularv to be profitable; and when difficulties do occur, whether they concern grammatical construction or historical allusion, they are thoroughly explained in the notes.

Finally, the novel itself is not trivial. Tels qu'ils furent, moreover, as the editors point out in their preface, should be interesting to the student not only as a piece of fiction but as a mirror of French life in the i86o's and yo's. Ernst and Miss Harvitt have shown the same tact in their editing as in their choice of a text.

Their introduction contains none of the absurdly extravagant statements, more suggestive of publishers "blurbs" than of serious criticism, with which editors sometimes feel compelled to introduce their offerings. The only thing one could wish improved is the quality of the illustrations which are even worse than those of the average text-book, but for which, 1 am sure, the editors are not to blame.

ON November 23d, , under the auspices of the Instituto, the Intercollegiate Alliance of Spanish Clubs of New York City gave an entertainment and dance at the Casa Italiana as a contribution to the scholarship to be awarded by the Instituto for the Summer of to the best student of Spanish in the colleges of New York City. The recipient of the scholarship will be a member of the Instituto's tour, conducted by Professor William M. Barlow, and will be able to attend, as in.

Professor E. The speakers of the evening were Dr. Upon request she will also give, under the auspices of the Instituto, lectures in Universities and cultural centers. For the studies of Hispanic-American literature and culture, the visit of the Hispanic-American poetess will be of great value. During the intermission Hon. Ogden H. Hammond, former United States Ambassador to Spain, made a short address outlining the plans of the Instituto as a centre for the study of Spanish culture and to foster cultural relations between the United States and the Hispanic countries.

Following the concert Mr. Among the patrons were: Mrs. Henry Martyn Alexander; Mrs. Barett Andrews; Mrs. Vincent Astor; Mrs. Samuel S. Auchincloss; Mrs. Hugh D. Stephen Birch; Mr. Lawrence Smith-Butler; Mrs. Nicholas Murray Butler; Mrs. Gordon Knox Bell; Mrs. Alexander Biddle; Mrs. James A. Burden; Miss Lucrezia Bori; Mrs.