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The work is characterized by great rhythmic energy and superb, rich orchestration.

Not just another piano concerto, but a major and unaccountably neglected symphonic work. The Germans, however, without the same cultural prejudices, were ready to promote anything that was good; so the two works represented here were published in Germany. By the way, your and existing copies in England copy may well become very valuable! I see that the Germans are melting down all music plates for bullets: and as these are in Leipzig, no doubt by this time the concerto has been re-cast in another form, less musical, but more effective perhaps.

You see how this ghastly business touches us all in many queer forms. Although composed within six years of each other, the two concertos are superficially strongly contrasted. The Mackenzie is openly virtuosic, its Scottish bravura balanced by sentiment and wit. The Tovey is no less technically demanding and is unconcerned with display, though its rhetoric has both grandeur and vivacity.

But in both works there is a sense of unity of purpose in which the early romantic battle between first and second subjects, often characterized respectively as masculine and feminine, is no longer a driving force, and in which the pitting of soloist against orchestra, individual against society, has no place whatever. The intellectual strengths in these two outstanding works are not revealed through argument, but through cooperation.

In the case of the Mackenzie, the cooperation of masculine and feminine is fundamental. Mackenzie and Tovey were both pianists. Mackenzie was to succeed MacFarren as Principal, but on the strength of other merits, including his even greater skills as a violinist. The truth is that he was well ahead of most of his tutors, in his early teens having been a member of the ducal orchestra in the magnificent Schloss at Sondershausen, where the very latest works of Wagner and Liszt were performed, alongside late Beethoven and in the castle chapel Bach cantatas.

No wonder that his days as a student composer in old London evoked comment from him touched with a characteristic broad-mindedness :. April My Dear Mackenzie, I am seldom in London now as I have—for the last lap in the race—taken up my rest in my old town. Under the benign and intelligent direction of his patroness, Miss Weisse, he was initially trained as a virtuoso pianist and composer.

Despite small hands, Tovey reached a high level of accomplishment, and premiered his own concerto. He was born in Eton, graduated in classical honours from the Scottish-founded Balliol College, Oxford, and died in Edinburgh, where his memory is still green. More seriously, he contributed to the art of writing programme notes with great distinction, publishing some of them under the title Essays in Musical Analysis.

Perhaps he was inspired by his predecessor in the Edinburgh Reid Chair of Music, John Thomson — , who is reliably credited with having introduced programme notes to the world. As a composer he has been neglected. It is probably the longest cello concerto ever composed, but its power and vivacity have kept it alive despite such an obvious obstacle. Besides these, there is a Symphony , the opera The Bride of Dionysus — and a number of fine chamber pieces, notably the Elegiac Variations and the Sonata Eroica, both for cello and piano.

Thus Tovey, writing to Edward Speyer in November But despite this auspicious start and subsequent performances, including one under Fritz Busch in Aachen in and others in Edinburgh, the concerto only re-emerges from obscurity with this CD—and it is a revelation: Tovey is not a composer ignored because of his idiosyncracies, but because of his unaffected mastery. Brahms will immediately be invoked—and rightly. Mere derivation could not produce such a seamless, coherent and yet compelling work, and the concerto is a true and worthy child of its parent.

Tovey himself refused to comment on the work—unless one can include the delightfully revealing remark to his former student Mary Grierson:. I always remember your first performance, and I remember you wore a dress of a very pretty, soft blue which seemed exactly to suit the music. Soft blue is scarcely the colour of the opening statement from the piano, threatening portentous matters. Alle unsere Bekannten waren uns eine Meile entgegengekommen. Die Jugend entflieht schnell, das Alter dauert lange! Er tanzte, ritt, focht und voltigierte meisterhaft; seine Equipage wie seine Kleidung waren Muster geschmackvoller Eleganz.

Meine Stiefmutter war durch diesen doppelten Heiratsantrag hoch erfreut. Nur Taube konnte sich mit seinem Witze und Geiste messen, und wirklich flohen unsere Abende mehrenteils in geistvollen Unterhaltungen hin. Doch riet sie mir, Brinck in meinem Umgange nicht gar zu viel auszuzeichnen, da es unschicklich sei, den Mann, der uns sein Herz und seine Hand angetragen habe, allen vorzuziehen, wenn man nicht fest entschlossen ist, sein Schicksal mit ihm zu verbinden. Taube fragte mich einst, welcher von diesen beiden Herren mir besser gefiele, ich sagte: "Wenn Sie weder Mama, noch irgend jemand meine Antwort sagen wollen, so will ich ganz aufrichtig beichten.

Schwander fragte. Eine Schlittenfahrt. Sonderbare Bemerkungen vom E indrucke eines schwarzsamtenen Oberrocks. Auch sitzen bisweilen zwei Damen in einem. Jede suchte sie in der Art, sich zu kleiden, nachzuahmen, keiner stand alles, was sie anlegte, so gut als ihr. Schlittenpferd und Geschirr zeigten prachtvolle Eleganz. Mein junges Herz pochte auf eine mir unbegreifliche Art!

Ich hatte kaum das Herz, ihn anzusehen! Gaben Schneider und Kaufmann ihm den Reiz, der mich einige Stunden beunruhigte? Darf ich mit Ihren Eltern sprechen? Auch hatten diese beiden. Sie lieben nicht mich, sie lieben meine Larve. Er ist so gut, so unterhaltend.

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Aber Taube, vergessen Sie das alles, und denken Sie nicht daran. Nicht der Schlippenbach, nicht Lisetten habe ich so viel gesagt! Brinck hielt meinen Eltern Wort und sprach von seiner Liebe nie zu mir. Aber wie? Er seufzte, ich schwieg, auch Taube schlug die Blicke gedankenvoll nieder. Eine feierliche Stille herrschte unter uns. Ich hatte keine gute Stunde, wenn ich bei ihr zum Besuch kam, und so segnete ich den Tag unserer Abreise. Ich bekam vom Werte meiner kleinen Person eine hohe Idee. Brinck behielt in meinem Herzen den Preis; oft sah ich ihn im Geiste mit dem auf mich gerichteten, forschenden Blick, wie er das einzelne Wort Lieben ausgesprochen hatte.

Lenkte meine Stiefmutter wieder ein und sagte. Darauf antwortete die Mutter, ihr Sohn habe ein freies Herz und sei nicht blind. Schwander staunte nicht wenig, als mein Vater mit diesem. Er hatte eine Gattin, eine Mutter und Schwester, an denen er mit innigster Liebe hing. Nie war mir ein solcher Konstrast aufgefallen, als der zwischen diesen beiden Herren!

Vielleicht sei auch dieser Triumph noch meinen Reizen aufgespart. Zweiter Besuch von Recke. Ein Antrag. Wirkung dieses Besuches auf mich. Die ersten Tage der Liebe zwischen ihr und ihrem verstorbenen. Nun war Recke minder schlecht, aber doch immer sehr sonderbar gekleidet. Seine starke, doch nicht feste Stimme, sein oftes, aber laut und zitterndes Lachen war meinen Ohren so unangenehm als seine Figur und sein ganzes Wesen mir zuwider war. Recke nahm den Vorschlag an, und Lieven blieb bei uns; mir wurde wohler ums Herz, als der Neffe meiner Stiefmutter fort war.

Meine Stiefmutter sagte mit einem ihr nicht. Am liebsten blieb' ich ungeheiratet! In seiner Kleidung herrschte der einfache, englische Geschmack. Komm, tanze mit mir einen Teutschentanz! Brinckens Bild erwacht in mir. Der Graf kommt wieder. Aber ohne Leitband kann er keine Stunde gehen, ohne immer zu fallen. Herrschen wollt' ich nicht; lieber vor Langerweile gesichert sein, dies war das Ziel, wonach ich strebte. Meine Phantasie sagte mir: "Brinckens Herz mag da wohl noch inniger geschlagen haben!

Und wenn ich Kettler nicht nehme, dann kommt Recke! Ob ich mich nach dem Grafen sehne, oder die Verbindung mit ihm scheue? Noch waren keine vierzehn Tage verflossen, so war Kettler wieder da und bat meinen Vater im Namen seiner Mutter, wegen einer wirtschaftlichen Angelegenheit mit ihm in ein paar Tagen nach Essern zu reisen. Aber dem Grafen ging es mit der Landwirtschaft, wie mir mit dem Klavierspielen. Jeder Besuch von. Er kam wieder mit einer Menge Uhren an. Der Graf suchte sich zu entschuldigen, versprach Besserung. Antrag von meines Vaters Schwester. Einwilligung des alten Grafen.

Beistand meiner Stiefmutter. Reise meines Vaters nach Essern.


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Der junge Graf hofft, sich mir lieb zu machen, kommt wieder zu uns -- wird von mir ganz abgesagt. Dieser Brief meiner Tante gab mir. Mein Vater durchlas beide vom alten Grafen gerichtlich unterzeichnete Akten; alles, alles, was zur Sicherheit meines Vaters und zu meinem Vorteil gefordert war, hatte der Graf bewilliget. Als sie sich erholt hat, hat sie gleich. Als der junge Graf meinen Brief an seine Mutter gelesen hat, ist er ernst und nachdenklich geblieben, hat endlich ausgerufen: Sie liebt mich nicht!

Doch mit Klavierspielen plagte er mich selbst da! Diese erwiderte: da habe sie noch nicht den zum ewigen Leitbande bestimmten Grafen gekannt. Er habe bisher als Liebhaber einen ernsten Weg genommen, um als Gatte einst Liebhaber und Freund zu bleiben. Dies glaubte ich am Ende selbst und hing mit noch innigerer Liebe an ihr.

Besuch von Recke. Reise nach Remten. Ich gebe meiner Stiefmutter das Versprechen, Recke zu heiraten. Wir werden versprochen. Ich segnete den Augenblick, als ich in mein Zimmer trat und mich zu Bette legte. Dann sprach sie von den herrlichen Gegenden um Neuenburg, den seligen Tagen, die sie da gelebt habe. Dieser Neffe war sein Liebling,. Er liebt dich, du bist seine erste Liebe, wirst seine letzte Liebe sein! Aber vor dem zwanzigsten Jahre gebe sie mich durchaus nicht von sich. Unsere Reise nach Remten wurde angetreten, aber ehe wir abreisten, hatte Recke in der Zeit von sechs Tagen durch Boten zweimal an meine Eltern und mich geschrieben.

Er schrieb sehr gut; seine Briefe waren voll leidenschaftlicher Liebe und voll. Kaum waren wir in Remten, so war auch Recke mit seinem Freunde Lieven bei uns, denn nun zog er von Neuenburg auf sein Nebengut Georgenhof hin; dies lag nur eine Meile von Remten, und da kam er jagdweise oft zu uns. Auch sprach er nie mit mir, sah mich mit seinen. Weinend sagte ich: Ja, Mutterchen! Schnell fertigte meine Stiefmutter den Boten nach Georgenhof ab; ehe zwei Stunden verflossen, war Recke da. Unbekannt mit Welt und Menschen stelle ich meiner vertrautesten Freundin meine Gedanken und Empfindungen in diesen Briefen so treulich dar, wie meine Gestalt sich in einem treuen Spiegel abbildet.

Meine gute Stoltz liebte mich. Ewig, ewig wirst du es erfahren, wie ich dich liebte und dich ewig lieben werde! Nicht wahr, Sie sagten so: 'der Tod ist auch Leben? Auch nicht der kleinste Zettel, den ich der teuern Seligen geschrieben habe, ist von ihr vernichtet worden, und einige meiner Briefe an meine Eltern, an Lisette von Medem, an Doris von Lieven und an Pastor Martini fand ich in dieser Briefsammlung, die sich nach Tag und Jahren geordnet hatte.

So forderten wir beide im Herzen Dinge von einander, die wir nicht zu geben vermochten. Diesen Gedanken gab er mir sehr undelikat zu erkennen. Noch habe ich auch unter den Lebenden Freunde, die mich lieben, wie meine Verstorbenen mich liebten, und die ich liebe, wie ich die teueren Seligen liebte. Diesem hatte ich nie mein Jawort gegeben, nur seine und meine Eltern standen unsertwegen in Heiratstraktaten. Bis dahin wurde ich vom Grafen als Kind behandelt. Wenn ich Reckes Frau werde, dann wird meine Tanzlust ganz vorbei sein. Ich hoffe, er wird vielleicht zufrieden sein, wenn die Hochzeit auch erst in meinem einundzwanzigsten Jahre ist.

Mama will dies auch so. Aber liebe, liebste Freundin meiner Seele, jetzt steht in meinem Herzen noch eine Freundin neben dir. Doch dich, meine Lisette, liebe ich noch mehr, du bist die erste Freundin meiner Jugend, die liebste Freundin meiner Seele. Meine Lisette! Glaube mir, Freundin! Bis dahin werde ich Herrn von der Recke mehr kennen lernen, und dann werde ich ihn auch mehr lieben.

Dies zu tun, sobald die Hochzeit vorbei ist, habe ich fest in mir beschlossen. Alles, was die Zufriedenheit dieser guten Eltern vermehrt, dies zu tun gebietet mir mein Herz. Hast du einen Widerwillen gegen Recke? Wir alle weinten herzlich. Abends gegen 6 Uhr. Mama liest, und ich bin allein. Abends nach Den Mama hat meine Hochzeit leider zum Ich werde Ihnen, meine Freundin, schon sagen warum! Ach Gott! Die Medem aus Behnen, die dich, liebste Freundin,.

Glaube nur nicht, meine Liebste,. Er kann beinahe gar nicht mit mir und meiner geliebten Stoltz sprechen, aber mit Mama und der Behnschen Frau spricht und lacht er recht viel. Er soll ein ganz vortrefflicher Mensch sein, das sagen beide. Der gute Brinck ist also schon tot! Ich werde mir es immer sagen,.

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Er sagte: 'Morgen wird es wieder gut sein. Noch, liebste Lisette, habe ich meine geliebten Eltern hier; ich sehe diese, ich sehe meinen lieben Mann froh, ich bin es also! Ich hoffe immer, es wird anders werden, ich werde Sie und meine lieben Eltern nicht so sehr vermissen, aber mein Herze. Herr von Lieven, der Arzt und sein Kammerdiener waren dabei. Er nahm Hut und Stock und ging spazieren, die beiden Herren begleiteten ihn; ich warf mich auf meine Knie und flehte zu Gott um Geduld und Verstand. Liebes Stolzchen! Da blieb ich noch eine volle Stunde im offnen Fenster liegen, sah im hellen Schein des Mondes die kleinen Wellen des Flusses spielen, dachte -- ach!

Er kam erst zu Tisch nach Hause, aber er sprach gar nicht, und ich hatte auch nicht den Mut, ein Wort hervorzubringen. Gleich nach Tisch ritt er wieder aus, und so habe ich ihn heute fast gar nicht gesehen. Ich werde Ihren lieben Brief in einem meinen Eltern zeigbaren Briefe beantworten. Meine Mintusche ist unter meinem Fenster von Reckes Hunden zerrissen worden, und was mir am wehesten tut, Recke selbst hetzte dies arme Tier!

Die Erscheinung Ihres Boten, liebste Eltern! Ach Briefe! Briefe nur! Ich liebe meinen guten Mann, aber Sie, Sie vermisse ich mehr, als ich es sagen kann.

Leben Sie wohl, ewig Geliebte! Dieser Brief, liebes Stolzchen, trifft Sie schon in Mitau; den Ich bliebe lieber zu Hause! Jetzt, meine Freundin, ist mein Herz leichter, da ich es Ihnen aufgeschlossen habe; vielleicht wird noch alles gut gehn! Meine Reichartin sitzt den ganzen Tag hinter ihrem Schirm und weint; ich kann auch mit keinem Menschen ein Wort reden! Aber er ist nun einmal so! Lieber Gott, gib mir Verstand! Ich habe Ihnen, liebste Stoltzen, wieder so manches zu sagen, aber wo soll ich anfangen?

Ach, liebe Teuere!


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Da legte ich mich ganz still zu Bette. Ich tat, als wenn ich schliefe, aber Recke weckte mich auf und sagte: "Was ist das? Noch habe ich ihn heute nicht wieder gesehen, mir ist auch bange vor dem Augenblick. Nun ich nicht mehr in Mitau bin, jetzt, liebe, liebste Lisette, bin ich ungleich heiterer! Als ich mich meinem lieben Manne vor dem Altare versprach -- da versprach ich es mir, mich ganz nach den Neigungen dessen zu richten, dem ich verbunden wurde, und diesen Vorsatz werde ich heilig halten.

Ach, Stolzchen! Und ich konnte doch keinem sagen, warum ich dem Willen derer ungehorsam war, denen zu folgen meine Pflicht ist. Sobald Lisettchen bei mir gewesen ist, so komme ich nach Altautz; dies hat mein lieber Mann mir auch schon erlaubt. Das ist doch sonderbar! Recke liebt diese Familie sehr, sie lebt auf einem Gute von Recke, eine halbe Meile von hier.

Ich will die Freundschaft dieser Menschen suchen, weil mein Mann sie liebt. Mir gefallen diese Menschen recht gut, und das Pastorat ist ganz nahe bei Neuenburg. Jetzt, liebes Stolzchen, bin ich durch den Besuch meiner lieben Lisette recht froh. Ich kann dir es gar nicht sagen, meine Liebe, wie mich die Verabschiedung der guten, alten Frau schmerzte! Stolzchen, du hast die gute, alte Frau nicht gekannt! Recke sagte sehr bitter, die erste Pflicht eines Weibes sei die, nach dem Beifalle ihres Mannes zu streben. Leben Sie wohl, Liebe! Ein guter Mensch wird eine unschuldige Frau nie verleumden und dieser ein solches Bad bei ihren Verwandten zurichten!

Gott kann, Gott wird alles zum Besten lenken! Vielleicht hat unser guter Gott mich zum Werkzeuge ausersehen, aus meinem Mann durch Sanftmut und Geduld einen bessern Menschen zu machen. Ich will den Mut nicht verlieren! Gestern ging mein Brief an Sie ab, und heute fange ich sogleich einen andern an! Aber das soll mit Gottes Hilfe schon anders werden. Ich will gar nicht herrschen! Nun wollte Taube,. Sie sagte schon so einen Tag zu meinem Manne: "Lottchen ist gar nicht wie aus unsrer Familie; sie karessiert den lieben Mann gar nicht. Abends nach zehn. Heute war mein Mann recht freundlich, und er blieb es auch, als wir allein waren und auf unser Zimmer hinaufgingen.

Gott, wie charakterisierte sie ihn in ihren Fantasien! Um einige Tage hat er mir versprochen, mit mir nach Altautz zu fahren. Sie werden es sehn, liebes Stolzchen, mein Mann wird mich am Ende noch recht lieb halten. Kaum waren wir zum Tor hinaus, als Recke schon zu brummen anfing. Bei Gott! Hier habe ich von Recke noch kein freundliches Gesicht bekommen! Gegen 4 Uhr nachmittags. Mein guter Vater sprach immer von meinen Feldern, meinem Viehe, meiner Leinewand. Mein lieber Vater schilderte. Ich konnte kein Wort sprechen! Aber die Rede meines guten Vaters hatte mein Herz zerrissen!

Mein Vater hatte auch das Wort "Pfand der Liebe" ausgesprochen. Pfand der Liebe! Und dann, wenn in meiner Seele ein besseres Bild der seinigen ruht, dann, ja dann, dann will ich ihm und meinem Vater mit tausend Freuden unter den schwersten Mutterwehen Vaterfreuden bringen. Liebes Stolzchen, verbrennen Sie diesen Brief, mein Herz war mir so voll! Einige Tage der Freude waren mein! An diesen Tag, mein Stolzchen, will ich denken, wenn mein Mann wieder unfreundlich wird.

Lisette sagte mir nachher, ich soll totenbleich, aber sehr interessant ausgesehen haben, weil meine Haut noch. Mein Haar war ganz zerstreut, und dies soll mir sehr wohl gelassen haben. Er fragte mich mit einer sehr liebreichen Stimme, indem er die Hand nach mir ausstreckte: "Was ist dir, mein Weibchen, dein bleiches Gesicht wird mit einem Male blutrot?

Mein Stolzchen! Gott, Gott! Kurz, Stolzchen! Wenn das noch lange so fortdauert, dann gehe ich ganz zugrunde! Auch ist mir ein solches Leben Last. Beste, innig geliebte Eltern! Den Briefwechsel mit meiner Jugendfreundin gebe ich auf, und nach Neuenburg soll sie nicht kommen. Keiner liebt Sie mehr als dero gehorsames Kind Lotte. Ach Stolzchen! He does not leave because of the murders, but because his affairs with women will be discovered in the papers he left in his house This leaves Florentin no choice but to continue moving.

The incident with the Golfo woman causes him to go into seclusion in the countryside and to live as a sheperd Women banish Florentin because of embarrassment, scandal, and crime. In each situation, the women clearly exercise their right to remove an unwanted member of society. Dorothea Schlegel believed that truly intelligent women try not to display their power within the household or over men at all, but allow men to believe that they are in charge. A woman who does not appear to hold much authority may actually hold quite a lot.

Pretending to be weak is an advantage for women. Women are often portrayed as weak and unable to complete certain tasks. The male characters in Florentin also view women in this way. Polite society demands that the male characters act as chivalrous pawns in these situations. Therefore, the perception of women as fragile often benefits female characters, in that they can receive assistance whenever they desire. Although this behavior may seem manipulative, it demonstrates the control women hold over men in the story.

Instead the Miller goes on foot to fetch the carriage for Juliane while Florentin and Eduard voluntarily walk to the castle Florentin offers to take a letter to Clementina for Eleonore In these situations, no woman is ordering, or even requesting men to act on her behalf. Rather, Eduard and Florentin take it upon themselves to act chilvalrously. It is clear by their almost blind willingness to do so, however, that Eduard and Florentin consider this behavior completely normal. The women whom they help never seem to complain, signifying that they would expect nothing less from their men.

Sometimes the influence women hold over men is so powerful in Florentin that men feel vulnerable, threatened, or completely out of control. Women do not use physical force to persuade men in the novel, but rather, their feminine charm. This charm captivates Florentin. Florentin allows himself to be more easily persuaded by the women than by men.

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Florentin feels completely helpless in the presence of Juliane and is willing to follow her, even if that means changing his plans. Florentin recognizes at this point that he is completely within the power of Eleonore and Juliane. When seeing the painting of Juliane as Saint Anne, based on the portrait of Clementina as Saint Ceclia, Florentin feels compelled to fight for her, and Eduard points out how silly this idea seems After only knowing women for a very short time, Florentin feels like he must come to their defense.

When Felicita writes that she will be taking her vows as a nun, Florentin feels that he must come to her rescue, even though she has not asked him to do so. Both Florentin and Manfredi feel that they risked their lives for Felicita and are punished for it During his gambling phase, Florentin gives back a huge sum of money in Venice that he could have used to live on, not because he pitied the men from whom he won it, but because he felt sorry for their wives Florentin feels compelled to make his wife as happy and healthy as possible when she is carrying their child.

When Florentin is not sacrificing himself or fighting for women, they enchant him to such an extent that he cannot help himself. He is so enchanted by the Golfo woman that he returns the next night to see her again Her charisma eventually causes him a great amount of embarrassment, so he believes he must leave Venice Florentin is not the only one whose feelings are affected by women. She alone has the ability to make him ecstatic or depressed.

In an indirect way, Juliane forces him to confront and examine his painful past. The Golfo woman also triggers memories that Florentin has forgotten. Das Ganze ward von einem kristallnen Kronleuchter zauberisch beleuchtet. In both descriptions, Florentin notes the wall, the carpet, and the lighting. In both situations, the changing of the interiors has a great effect on Florentin. It has metamorphosized from a seductive interior to a painful memory. This unconscious connection to his past makes Florentin feel uncomfortable and prevents him from sleeping with the Golfo woman. The Golfo woman remembers Florentin, but he cannot remember her The connection between the Golfo woman and Florentin may not be incidental at all.

She is very likely related to Florentin. Florentin could be the child of the Marquise,11 or if Clementina has been trying to keep a secret, the child could be her own. Clementina has an almost-supernatural ability to cause Florentin remember the vaguest memories from his youth. Her capacity to do so completely unnerves Florentin, making him uncomfortable. Unintentionally, women have the power to force Florentin remember his childhood. Though it is the past that he has been longing to discover, he leaves Clementia, signifying that he does not really want to discover his true orgins.

By disguising themselves, women ultimately betray Florentin when they reveal their true identity. Florentin believes he has been betrayed by the women in his life whom he most trusted. She becomes one of the women in his life who wears a disguise. It is not surprising then, that she does not treat him with the comfort and warmth that a natural mother would give her son.

When he is first living with his mother in her house, she begins to dress differently than when she would visit him on the island. Instead of her usually splendid clothing 50, 52 , she now only wears dark dresses 52 , and she forces her children to wear dark, cloister-like clothing too His mother has changed from a beautiful and magnificent creature into a weak, mean, and harsh warden.

The image of his mother is completely destroyed. When Florentin tries to rescue Felicita from the cloister, she tells their mother, and then his mother betrays him to the Prior. His mother confesses that she is not his mother at all, but merely knew his real mother and raised him as a favor to her Their marriage seems happy at first.

Florentin loves to dress up his wife and put make up on her like a doll 90 , signifying how much her appearance and her beauty mean to him. She is his artistic model. During the week that he leaves her alone to work on a piece in another town, she has an abortion 94 , and Florentin does not see it as her killing their child, but him.

After he tries to kill her, she takes up a new lover and has Florentin kicked out of Rome The woman who was his lover and the mother of his child has become his arch enemy. The Golfo woman had left a cloister and married an older man. Just as Florentin seems close to sleeping with her, her room appears to change as though she had been disguising her real identity from him all along. Clementina trys to hide her previous life as well, and not just from Florentin, but from almost everybody. His memories come flooding back to him In a strange way, the women are responsible for causing Florentin to reflect on his life.

He perceives that these women inactively direct him to remember his childhood. The Count allws himself to be tied up by his daughter, Theresa Eleonore, and not the Count, leads Florentin through the estate Men may command the battlefields, but women will still give them household duties. Juliane decides to go adventuring with Eduard and Florentin When his drawing model fell in love with him, he followed her wishes and married her The Golfo woman asks him to wait on the balcony, and he gladly does so Florentin has spent his entire life following the wishes, requests, and orders of women.

He considers doing what he is told as part of being a good son, husband, and friend. Eduard could very well give orders in this situation as well, because of his aristocratic standing and his closeness to the Schwarzenberg family, but Juliane commands the house. At the wedding, Eleonore is not seen first with her husband or her daughter, but checking to see whether her orders for the wedding have been properly carried out Florentin is not only bossed around by Juliane, but also by Betty.

Betty orders Florentin to describe every detail of the wedding. There is no situation on these estates where a man cannot be given orders or commands by women. The number of requests and orders reflect a society in which women clearly have the right to make requests and demands of their friends, family, and servants. Women have absolute control of the garden, the house, and the children. A very strong position of authority, in which women can freely give orders to men, is when they are teaching them.

Women as Educators Women act as educators in the story. She automatically assumes that Florentin is ignorant in the matter, he wants to learn about running an estate, and that she is the best person to teach him. Clementina clearly is the one who is most responsible for the education of the family. Clementina seems most concerned about the education of her nieces, Theresa and Juliane, but especially of Juliane, now that she is about to be married so young.

Perhaps Clementina believes Juliane is too naive in her thinking about love and she mistakes her feelings of dependency for Eduard as true love. The Doctor describes how much Clementina enjoys instructing choir audiences about music they would not otherwise hear. She alone teaches her society about its forgotten musical past.

Clementina is not content with just educating those around her. She insists on improving her own knowledge by continuing to educate herself. Clementina has complete control over the education of her family and all of the people who live on her estate. Women Running the Estate In Florentin, noble women rule over the estate. They design it, control its maintenance, and organize the roles of everyone who lives there. Upon arrival at the Schwarzenberg estate, the Count informs Florentin that Eleonore is completely responsible for the creation of the natural park 17 and the gardens that surround the castle The interior of the castle has been designed by Eleornore Eduard remarks on how she blends both old and new items into one unified style.

When Florentin is married, his wife also seems to be head of the household. She handles all of the money brought in from his painting and determines how to spend it Yet Juliane quickly fills the role of running a household, as seen in her eagerness in giving orders there Even though the Count takes credit for the agricultural improvements on the estate, Eleonore feels that she must also give credit to the Count for abolishing the Frondienst Clementina is very clearly in charge of her household.

She has so much power over her dealings that she acts like a goddess, judging who is worthy of her help. Accordingly, her estate resembles paradise on earth Her ability to organize her estate has reached almost super-human proportions. Women as Saints or Goddesses The power that the female characters hold in the story is often expressed by associating those characters with saints or goddesses. Eleonore, for example, is compared to Ceres, the goddess of harvest, in praise of her organization of the garden and park Eleonore has reached a goddess-like status simply because she organizes the garden and park on her estate.

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Also important are the two portraits of Juliane and Clementina. Because the portrait of Juliane is based on the portrait of Clementina, both Saint Anne and Saint Cecilia are associated with her. Saint Anne was the mother of Mary Holweck and was responsible for her upbringing, as Florentin notes As Saint Anne, Clementina is portrayed as a mother, which symbolizes the relationship between her and Juliane. For the first fourteen years of her life, Juliane was raised by Clementina and not by Eleonore Saint Cecilia, who was blinded before being martyred, is reported to have written some of the first hymns for the Christian church, and is the saint of musicians Kirsch.

This is also fitting for Clementina as a gifted musician. These powers can be applied to Clementina as well, because she is the model for the portrait. Clementina seems so much like a saint to Florentin that he thinks of her as having goddess-like powers. And indeed, her work with the sick does seem to give her a supernatural ability to bring the terminally ill back to life All her work for charity she does purely out of kindness, as a true saint might act She not only brings the sick back to health, but she also has plans of installing public baths These baths would be open to all of those with an illness, not just the wealthy.

Bathing is often associated with baptism. It seems that Clementina wants to baptize those people whom she is treating, if only symbolically. This title implies that Eleonore and her family are mere mortals in comparison to the goddess- like Clementina. But by making the analogy in the first place, she is admitting that Clementina really does hold this power over her family. Clementina is not the only female in the story who is goddess-like.

These women do not have to have saintly qualities or morals to be revered as goddesses. Even though they were living very modestly at the time 90 , Florentin did not paint her in any modest clothing or setting, preferring the grander idea of painting his wife as goddess-like. After his wife aborts his child and he only paints portraits of strangers to earn a living, he says that, for him, art itself has gone from being a goddess to a wench The Marquise has similar saintly characteristics as her friend, Clementina.

If she had failed in her wifely duties to produce a child, she would have sacrificed herself and allowed her husband to remarry after she retreated to a convent Juliane is also regarded as a goddess. When Florentin says goodbye to Juliane, he kneels down in front of her, submissively. These women are regarded so highly, not just because of their beauty and their good deeds, but their power to create, protect, and nurture life. Nowhere in the novel are men described as god-like or having god-like qualities. This is reserved for women because of their ability to have children and to act as protective mothers.

Because of this ability, women are viewed by men as holy. This automatically gives them a position of authority, both because they have authority over their children and those under their protection, and because they can do something that men cannot do, create life. The woman who raised him, despite the fact that she was not his real mother, insisted that he call her mother 32 , and she had complete control over his life until he escaped. In a way, because of his respect for and obedience to Eleonore, Florentin fills the role of a child in her household.

Florentin is only interested in these women sexually, and yet, he still thinks of himself as one of their children. But when she becomes pregnant with his child, and he realizes he will become a father, his feelings for her change. Now that she is to be a mother, he gains so much respect for her that he regards her as holy. This relationship changes dramatically when she rejects her role as a mother and aborts their child.

Florentin is so affected and disappointed because of this that he transfers her act to himself. No doubt, he feels betrayed by what he feels as her misuse of her power. She has been married for five or six years without conceiving , she is plagued by guilt because she is not able to fulfill her marital duties, and her physical and mental health soon begin to suffer She alone is blamed for the lack of an heir; her inability to produce one makes her a bad wife and an incomplete woman as well. As a woman who cannot produce a child, her only other option is to live a spiritual life Her prayers seem to be answered with the appearance of a ghost child.

The Marquise does give birth to a baby girl after nine months, and the ghost child disappears. Juliane ends the story with the birth of the real child. It is assumed that, because the Marquise finally fulfilled her role as a wife and mother, her life would end happily, and there was no need to tell the rest of her life. In finally giving birth to a real child, the Marquise regained her position of power within her marriage and her household. She is not only the mother of music, but quite possibly, of a boy who was lost to her.

As Florentin arrives, Clementina is listening to her requiem, which she has performed every year , implying that she is mourning the specific date that she lost her son. This requiem reawakens many familiar feelings in Florentin In his desire to join the prayers of the choir, Florentin is praying for his own lost soul. Women as Artists The women in Florentin are not just creators in the sense that they can create life; they are also artists in their own right.

Juliane is a talented singer, perhaps she was tutored by Clementina while she was still living there In telling her ghost story, Juliane displays her ability to act as a gifted story-teller Her music is so artful and powerful that it seems to come from a saint or goddess. The voices of the singers and instruments become tools to connect heaven and earth.

In writing this piece of music, Clementina acts as a prophet. The temple shakes as though God himself is speaking. During the concert, Clementina herself appears to Florentin almost as a work of art. In addition, she closely resembles the portrait of herself as Cecilia, indicating that she has always seemed to be like a figure out of a work of art She cannot be a work of art and a mother at the same time.

Helfer emphasizes this point: The woman, as a childbearer, [ Women can be artists in their ability to create and also in their ability to destroy life. Here Florentin personifies art with three females: a goddess, companion, and a servant. To him, art is the sole goddess in his life and the one constant companion who has remained loyal to him.

The artful act of his wife destroys his vision of art as a goddess. He can no longer worship, pray to, or make love to art. To Florentin, art is now simply a means to pay his bills. Because he no longer takes any joy in what he paints, he is no longer creating works of art. Women Implementing Change in Society As mothers and as heads of the house, women in Florentin have the opportunity to change their society and implement modern and liberal ideas.

Eleonore has created a very modern park and does not allow hunters on her estate She maintains men have household duties in addition to their duties outside of the household When the Chief Cavalry Sergeant complains of the changing times, he brings up the fact that his daughter danced with one of the farmers from his estate , an incident from which he has not yet fully recovered. If his daughter is willing to dance with one of the farmers, then she must be comfortable with the new reforms, whereas her father obviously is not. Although the Count is responsible for the new agricultural reforms on their estate, Eleonore tells how the Count abolished Frondienst on their land, an act she obviously agrees with, because she brags about it to the Chief Cavalry Sergeant She also wants to spare the lower class from being mocked by the aristocracy She allows the guests to sit among their own groups The Count wants to stand on tradition.

In the end, however, Eleonore gets her way, and the tables at the wedding feast are designed so that families can sit together and everyone serves themselves so that there are no lackeys By organizing the wedding feast this way, Eleonore completely breaks with tradition. This emphasizes family bonds rather than rank and status. It is clear from her treatment of her servants and the people on her estate that she thinks of them in a more humane way than her husband and the Chief Cavalry Sergeant.

She manages her servants with an enlightened respect. When the question of apparel comes for the wedding, the Count insists on the traditionally rich and fancy clothing , even though Florentin and Juliane both prefer the plainer dress , Women usually decide what will be worn at a wedding, yet the Count has the final say in the matter For the Count, it is not a matter of aesthetics, but of propriety.

The Count succeeds in keeping the traditionally elaborate wedding attire as part of the ceremony. Clementina, like Eleonore, rules over her estate with the most modern and liberal reforms. She insists on caring for the sick, regardless of their economic status, and even provides them with free housing In addition, she plans to add a public bath The park on her estate is open to the public As a female composer and unmarried woman with no children, Clementina still runs her estate herself and makes all decisions concerning who deserves her charity and who does not Eleonore and Clementina, although they are changing their societies, are not changing them so quickly that the reforms are revolutionary.

Both women are not trying to produce classless societies on their estates, but rather to build societies in which the aristocracy and the peasants are well taken care of and healthy, forming a generally pleasant and efficient environment. Clementina, however, goes one step further than Eleonore because of her views on marriage.

Whereas Eleonore believes common understanding, friendship, and equal distribution of the household duties makes the happiest marriages, Clementina insists that marriage must be based on love, and not on self-sacrifice In regards to love and marriage, Eleonore stands on the side of tradition, and Clementina is thinking in a more Romantic sense, where marriage should be based on true love.

Conclusion: The power that women hold in Florentin allows them to command a great authority, each in their own way. Juliane, as one of the weakest women in the novel, still holds authority at specific times. Eleonore holds the respect of her people not through fear, violence, or threats, but through her generosity and fairness She governs her estate with consideration, not oppression, causing her servants to hold her in esteem.

Florentin, who seems to be an authority himself in her household, is willing to serve her out of admiration When he leaves the Schwarzenberg estate, Florentin asks leave of Juliane and Eleonore, but not of the Count or Eduard , Florentin defers most to the women and not to the men of the house.

Eleonore is not the woman in the Schwarzenberg family who holds the most power; this position belongs to Clementina. She is very authoritative in talking to Florentin. Nun so halten Sie nur Ihre ehrfurchsvolle Anrede! Eduard is the groom, and yet he, Juliane, and her parents, do not control the date of the wedding.

They continue to hold off the wedding until Clementina finally refuses to come Yet after the ceremony, Juliane and Eduard still feel it necessary to go to Clementina for her blessing Clementina, according to the Doctor, is careful in how she uses her authority. In other words, she wants Juliane and Betty to act independently, so that they have control over their own lives. She decides who is worthz to receive life-saving medical care through her charity.